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RTIs & Acute Otitis Media  |  Lower Respiratory Tract Infections  |  Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Community-Acquired Pneumonia




Risk Factors

Tab Number 5


Oral: 500 mg once daily for 3 days, or an alternative of 500 mg on Day 1, then 250 mg daily on Days 2-5
IV: 500 mg as a single dose by the IV route for at least 2 days, followed by a single daily oral dose of 500 mg to complete a 7- to 10-day course of therapy  

10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days, or an alternative of 10 mg/kg on Day 1, then 5 mg/kg on Days 2-5

  • ZITHROMAX should be given as a single daily dose1
  • ZITHROMAX tablets and suspension can be taken with or without food1
  • ZITHROMAX tablets should only be administered to children weighing more than 45 kg1
  • Administration of ZITHROMAX suspension should follow adults dosage for children weighing more than 45 kg1
Resources Pediatrics: How to Properly Administer ZITHROMAX® Watch nowLoadingRenal Impairment1

No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] of 10–80 mL/min). Caution should be exercised when ZITHROMAX is administered to patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <10 mL/min)Hepatic Impairment1

The same dosage as in patients with normal hepatic function may be used in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment

PathogensMain Bacterial Pathogens

Bacteria are the most common etiological pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and have traditionally been divided into two groups, designated ‘typical’ and ‘atypical’2

  • The most common ‘typical’ pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci, and Moraxella catarrhalis2
  • The most common ‘atypical’ pathogens include Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae2

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of CAP caused by H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis3


Data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed that lower respiratory tract infections affected >480 million people globally4,5

Lower respiratory tract infections were responsible for almost 2.5 million deaths in 2019, making this the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide5

Pneumonia is most prevalent in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa6

Globally, pneumonia is the single largest infectious cause of death in children. In 2019, pneumonia killed more than 740,000 children under the age of 5, accounting for 14% of all deaths of children under 5 years6

Within Europe, CAP is the leading cause of death due to infection, with approximately 90% of deaths due to pneumonia occurring in people aged >65 years7

Risk Factors7
  • Age (≥65 years)
  • Smoking
  • Alcoholism
  • Immunosuppressive conditions
  • Previous episode of pneumonia
  • Conditions such as COPD, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver or renal disease, diabetes mellitus and dementia
ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide antibiotic, or to any of the excipients.1
The most recent local resistance data available must always take precedence when selecting antimicrobial therapy; in settings where local resistance data are not available, national and international guidelines can help inform antimicrobial choice.
As with any antibiotic preparation, observation for signs of superinfection with non-susceptible organisms including fungi is recommended. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea has been reported with azithromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.1
Use of ZITHROMAX should be undertaken with caution in patients with significant hepatic disease. Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death.1
In patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <10 mL/min), a 33% increase in systemic exposure to ZITHROMAX was observed.1
You might also be interested in...Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis Find out moreLoadingResources ZITHROMAX® Mode of Action Find out moreLoadingReferences:Pfizer Malaysia ZITHROMAX Prescribing Information. Available at: Accessed January 2024.Ramirez JA, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66(3):iii3–iii9.Musher DM, et al. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1619–28.Global Burden GBD 2019 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators. Lancet. 2020;396(10258):1204–22.Torres A, et al. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021;7(1):25.World Health Organization. Pneumonia in Children Fact Sheet 2022. Available at: Accessed June 2023.Torres A, et al. Thorax. 2013;68:1057–65.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections ZITHROMAX® Safety Information Find out more Loading
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